Why are women living longer than men?

2 months agoEverywhere in the world women live longer than men – but this was not always the case. The available data from rich countries shows that women didn’t live longer than men in the 19th century. Why do women live longer than men and why is this difference growing in the past? There is only limited evidence and the evidence isn’t sufficient to draw an informed conclusion. Although we know that there are behavioral, biological, and environmental factors which all play a part in the longevity of women over men, we don’t know how much each factor contributes.

We are aware that women are living longer than men, regardless of weight. But, this is not due to the fact that certain non-biological aspects have changed. These variables are evolving. Some are well known and relatively straightforward, like the fact that men smoke more often. Other are more complicated. For example, there is evidence that in rich countries the female advantage increased in part because infectious diseases used to affect women disproportionately a century ago, so advances in medicine that reduced the long-term health burden from infectious diseases, especially for survivors, ended up raising women’s longevity disproportionately.

Everywhere in the world women tend to live longer than men

The first chart below shows life expectancy at birth for men and women. It is clear that all countries are over the diagonal line of parity. This implies that a baby girl in all countries can expect to live longer than her younger brother.

This chart illustrates that, although there is a women’s advantage throughout the world, كيفية إقامة علاقة بالصور (please click the up coming post) the differences between countries can be significant. In Russia women are 10 years older than men; in Bhutan the gap is less than half a year.



In the richer countries, the female advantage in longevity used to be smaller

Let’s look at how female longevity advantage has changed over time. The chart below shows gender-based and female-specific life expectancy at the birth in the US between 1790-2014. Two areas stand out.

There is an upward trend: Men as well as women in the US live a lot, much longer than they did 100 years ago. This is in line with historical increases in life expectancy everywhere in the world.

And second, there is a widening gap: The female advantage in life expectancy used be very modest however it increased dramatically over the course of the last century.

You can verify that these are applicable to other countries with data by selecting the “Change country” option on the chart. This includes the UK, France, and Sweden.